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Series: CDSNS Colloquium

For the tipping elements in the Earth’s climate system, the most important issue to address is how stable is the desirable state against random perturbations. Extreme biotic and climatic events pose severe hazards to tropical rainforests. Their local effects are extremely stochastic and difficult to measure. Moreover, the direction and intensity of the response of forest trees to such perturbations are unknown, especially given the lack of efficient dynamical vegetation models to evaluate forest tree cover changes over time. In this study, we consider randomness in the mathematical modelling of forest trees by incorporating uncertainty through a stochastic differential equation. According to field-based evidence, the interactions between fires and droughts are a more direct mechanism that may describe sudden forest degradation in the south-eastern Amazon. In modeling the Amazonian vegetation system, we include symmetric α-stable Lévy perturbations. We report results of stability analysis of the metastable fertile forest state. We conclude that even a very slight threat to the forest state stability represents L´evy noise with large jumps of low intensity, that can be interpreted as a fire occurring in a non-drought year. During years of severe drought, high-intensity fires significantly accelerate the transition between a forest and savanna state.

Monday, September 25, 2017 - 13:55 ,
Location: Skiles 005 ,
Professor Alessandro Veneziani ,
Emory Department of Mathematics and Computer Science ,
Organizer: Martin Short

When we get to the point of including the huge and relevant experience of
finite element fluid modeling collected in over 25 years of experience in the treatment of
cardiovascular diseases, the risk of getting “lost in translation” is real. The most important issues
are the reliability that we need to guarantee to provide a trustworthy decision support to clinicians;
the efficiency we need to guarantee to fit into the demand coming from a large volume of patients
in Computer Aided Clinical Trials as well as short timelines required by special
circumstances (emergency) in Surgical Planning.
In this talk, we will report on some recent activities taken at Emory to
make this transition possible. Reliability requirements call for an appropriate integration of
measurements and numerical models, as well as for uncertainty quantification. In particular, image and data
processing are critical to feeding mathematical models. However, there are several challenges still
open, e.g. in simulating blood flow in patient-specific arteries after stent deployment; or in
assessing the correct boundary data set to be prescribed in complex vascular districts. The gap between
theory, in this case, is apparent and good simulation and assimilation practices in finite elements
for clinical hemodynamics need to be drawn. The talk will cover these topics.
For computational efficiency, we will cover some numerical techniques currently in use for coronary
blood flow, like the Hierarchical Model Reduction or efficient methods for
coping with turbulence in aortic flows. As Clinical Trials are currently one of the most important sources of
information for medical research and practice, we envision that the suitable achievement of reliability and
efficiency requirements will make Computer Aided Clinical Trials (specifically with a strong
Finite-Elements-in-Fluids component) an important source of information with a significant impact on the
quality of healthcare. This is a joint work with the scholars and students of the Emory Center for
Mathematics and Computing in Medicine (E(CM)2), the Emory Biomech Core Lab (Don Giddens and Habib Samady), the Beta-Lab at the University of Pavia (F. Auricchio ). This work is supported by the US National
Science Foundation, Projects DMS 1419060, 1412963 1620406, Fondazione Cariplo, Abbott
Vascular Inc., and the XSEDE Consortium.

Series: Geometry Topology Seminar

We give "visual descriptions" of cut points and non-parabolic cut pairs in the Bowditch boundary of a relatively hyperbolic right-angled Coxeter group. We also prove necessary and sufficient conditions for a relatively hyperbolic right-angled Coxeter group whose defining graph has a planar flag complex with minimal peripheral structure to have the Sierpinski carpet or the 2-sphere as its Bowditch boundary. We apply these results to the problem of quasi-isometry classification of right-angled Coxeter groups. Additionally, we study right-angled Coxeter groups with isolated flats whose $\CAT(0)$ boundaries are Menger curve. This is a joint work with Matthew Haulmark and Hoang Thanh Nguyen.

Series: Algebra Seminar

postponed from September 18

In this talk I first wish to review my work with Balakrishnan and Muller, giving an algorithm for finding integral points on curves under certain (strong) assumptions. The main ingredients are the theory of p-adic height pairings and the theory of p-adic metrized line bundles. I will then explain a new proof of the main result using a p-adic version of Zhang's adelic metrics, and a third proof which only uses the metric at one prime p. At the same time I will attempt to explain why I think this last proof is interesting, being an indication that there may be new p-adic methods for finding integral points.

Series: PDE Seminar

I will review recent results on small scale creation in solutions of the Euler equation. A numerical simulation due to Hou and Luo suggests a new scenario for finite time blow up in three dimensions. A similar geometry in two dimensions leads to examples with very fast, double exponential in time growth in the gradient of vorticity. Such growth is know to be sharp due to upper bounds going back to 1930s. If I have time, I will also discuss several models that have been proposed to help understand the three-dimensional case.

Series: Research Horizons Seminar

Taffy pullers are machines designed to stretch taffy. They can modeled
by surface homeomorphisms, therefore they can be studied by geometry and
topology. I will talk about how efficiency of taffy pullers can be
defined mathematically and what
some of the open questions are. I will also talk about Macaw, a computer
program I am working on, which does related computations and which will
hopefully help answer some of the open questions.

Series: Research Horizons Seminar

Series: Other Talks

CORRECTED DATE. NOTE: This is the first in a forthcoming series of colloquia in quantum mathematical physics that will take place this semester. The series is a spin-off of last year's QMath conference, and is intended to be of broad interest to people wanting to know the state of the art of current topics in mathematical physics.

We shall make an overview of the interplay between the geometry of tubular neighbourhoods of Riemannian manifold and the spectrum of the associated Dirichlet Laplacian. An emphasis will be put on the existence of curvature-induced eigenvalues in bent tubes and Hardy-type inequalities in twisted tubes of non-circular cross-section. Consequences of the results for physical systems modelled by the Schroedinger or heat equations will be discussed.

Series: Analysis Seminar

The Gabor system of a function is the set
of all of its integer translations and modulations. The Balian-Low
Theorem states that the Gabor system of a function which is well
localized in both time and frequency cannot form an Riesz basis for
$L^2(\mathbb{R})$.
An important tool in the proof is a characterization of the Riesz basis
property in terms of the boundedness of the Zak transform of the
function. In this talk, we will discuss results showing that weaker
basis-type properties also correspond to boundedness
of the Zak transform, but in the sense of Fourier multipliers. We will
also discuss using these results to prove generalizations of the
Balian-Low theorem for Gabor systems with weaker basis properties, as
well as for shift-invariant spaces with multiple
generators and in higher dimensions.

Wednesday, September 27, 2017 - 13:55 ,
Location: Skiles 006 ,
Anubhav Mukherjee ,
Georgia Tech ,
Organizer: Justin Lanier

Let S be an (n-1)-sphere smoothly embedded in a closed, orientable, smooth n-manifold M, and let the embedding be null-homotopic. We'll prove in the talk that, if S does not bound a ball, then M is a rational homology sphere, the fundamental group of both components of M\S are finite, and at least one of them is trivial. This talk is based on a paper of Daniel Ruberman.

Series: Dissertation Defense

This dissertation concerns isoperimetric and functional inequalities in discrete spaces. The majority of the work concerns discrete notions of curvature. There isalso discussion of volume growth in graphs and of expansion in hypergraphs. [The dissertation committee consists of Profs. J. Romberg (ECE), P. Tetali (chair of the committee), W.T. Trotter, X. Yu and H. Zhou.]

Thursday, September 28, 2017 - 11:05 ,
Location: Skiles 006 ,
Tom Bohman ,
Carnegie Mellon University ,
Organizer: Lutz Warnke

The probabilistic method for constructing combinatorial objects has had a profound impact on the field since the pioneering work of Erdos in the first half of the twentieth century. Some recent applications of the probabilistic method build objects of interest by making a series of random choices that are guided by a simple rule and depend on previous choices. We give two examples of randomized algorithms of this type: random triangle removal and the triangle-free process. These algorithms address the classical questions of counting Steiner triple systems and determining the minimum independence number of a triangle-free graph on n vertices, respectively. Pseudo-random heuristics and concentration of measure phenomena play a central role in analyzing these processes.

Series: Graph Theory Seminar

In this talk we will discuss some Tur\'an-type results on graphs with a given circumference.
Let $W_{n,k,c}$ be the graph obtained from a clique $K_{c-k+1}$
by adding $n-(c-k+1)$ isolated vertices each joined to the same $k$ vertices of the clique,
and let $f(n,k,c)=e(W_{n,k,c})$.
Kopylov proved in 1977 that for $c\max\{f(n,3,c),f(n,\lfloor\frac{c}{2}\rfloor-1,c)\}$,
then either $G$ is a subgraph of $W_{n,2,c}$ or $W_{n,\lfloor\frac{c}{2}\rfloor,c}$,
or $c$ is odd and $G$ is a subgraph of a member of two well-characterized families
which we define as $\mathcal{X}_{n,c}$ and $\mathcal{Y}_{n,c}$.
We extend and refine their result by showing that if $G$ is a 2-connected graph on $n$
vertices with minimum degree at least $k$ and circumference $c$
such that $10\leq c\max\{f(n,k+1,c),f(n,\lfloor\frac{c}{2}\rfloor-1,c)\}$,
then one of the following holds:\\
(i) $G$ is a subgraph of $W_{n,k,c}$ or $W_{n,\lfloor\frac{c}{2}\rfloor,c}$, \\
(ii) $k=2$, $c$ is odd, and $G$ is a subgraph of a member of $\mathcal{X}_{n,c}\cup \mathcal{Y}_{n,c}$, or \\
(iii) $k\geq 3$ and $G$ is a subgraph of the union of a clique $K_{c-k+1}$ and some cliques $K_{k+1}$'s,
where any two cliques share the same two vertices.
This provides a unified generalization of the above result of F\"{u}redi et al. as well as
a recent result of Li et al. and independently, of F\"{u}redi et al. on non-Hamiltonian graphs.
Moreover, we prove a stability result on a classical theorem of Bondy on the circumference.
We use a novel approach, which combines several proof ideas including a closure operation and an edge-switching technique.

Series: ACO Student Seminar

In 1995 Kim famously proved the Ramsey bound $R(3,t) \ge c t^2/\log t$ by constructing an $n$-vertex graph that is triangle-free and has independence number at most $C \sqrt{n \log n}$. We extend this celebrated result, which is best possible up to the value of the constants, by approximately decomposing the complete graph $K_n$ into a packing of such nearly optimal Ramsey $R(3,t)$ graphs. More precisely, for any $\epsilon>0$ we find an edge-disjoint collection $(G_i)_i$ of $n$-vertex graphs $G_i \subseteq K_n$ such that (a) each $G_i$ is triangle-free and has independence number at most $C_\epsilon \sqrt{n \log n}$, and (b) the union of all the $G_i$ contains at least $(1-\epsilon)\binom{n}{2}$ edges. Our algorithmic proof proceeds by sequentially choosing the graphs $G_i$ via a semi-random (i.e., Rödl nibble type) variation of the triangle-free process. As an application, we prove a conjecture in Ramsey theory by Fox, Grinshpun, Liebenau, Person, and Szabó (concerning a Ramsey-type parameter introduced by Burr, Erdös, Lovász in 1976). Namely, denoting by $s_r(H)$ the smallest minimum degree of $r$-Ramsey minimal graphs for $H$, we close the existing logarithmic gap for $H=K_3$ and establish that $s_r(K_3) = \Theta(r^2 \log r)$. Based on joint work with Lutz Warnke.

Friday, September 29, 2017 - 13:55 ,
Location: Skiles 006 ,
Peter Lambert-Cole ,
Georgia Institute of Technology ,
Organizer: Peter Lambert-Cole

In this talk, I will present Arnold's famous ADE classification of simple singularities.

Series: Combinatorics Seminar

No Combinatorics Seminar, but many others of interest:
(a) on Friday [September 29th, 1pm-2pm in Skiles 005] He Guo, will give an ACO Student Seminar on "Packing nearly optimal Ramsey R(3,t) Graphs"
(b) on Thursday [September 28th, 11am-12am in Skiles 006] Tom Bohman will give an ACO colloquim talk on "Randomized Controlled Trials for Combinatorial Construction"
(c) on Saturday and Sunday [September 30th and October 1st] Atlanta Lecture Series in Combinatorics and Graph Theory XX takes place at Georgia Tech, with featured speaker Paul Seymour

Friday, September 29, 2017 - 15:00 ,
Location: Skiles 154 ,
Sergio Mayorga ,
Georgia Tech ,
Organizer: Jiaqi Yang

We will look at a system of hamiltonian equations on the torus, with an initial condition in momentum and a terminal condition in position, that arises in mean field game theory. Existence of and uniqueness of solutions will be shown, and a few remarks will be made in regard to its connection to the minimization problem of a cost functional.