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Series: Graph Theory Working Seminar

A
graph G is H-free if H is not isomorphic to an induced subgraph of G.
Let Pt denote the path on t vertices, and let Kn denote the complete
graph on n vertices. For a positive integer r, we use rG to denote the
disjoint
union of r copies of G. In this talk, we will discuss the result, by
Gaspers and Huang, that (2P2, K4)-free graphs are 4-colorable, where the
bound is attained by the five-wheel and the complement of seven-cycle.
It answers an open question by Wagon in 1980s.

Series: Analysis Seminar

The centerpiece of the subject of integral geometry, as conceived originally by Blaschke in the 1930s, is the principal kinematic formula (PKF). In rough terms, this expresses the average Euler characteristic of two objects A, B in general position in Euclidean space in terms of their individual curvature integrals. One of the interesting features of the PKF is that it makes sense even if A and B are not smooth enough to admit curvatures in the classical sense. I will describe the state of our understanding of the regularity needed to make it all work, and state some conjectures that would extend it.

Series: High Dimensional Seminar

Alesker has introduced the notion of a smooth valuation on a smooth manifold M. This is a special kind of set function, defined on sufficiently regular compact subsets A of M, extending the corresponding idea from classical convexity theory. Formally, a smooth valuation is a kind of curvature integral; informally, it is a sum of Euler characteristics of intersections of A with a collection of objects B. Smooth valuations admit a natural multiplication, again due to Alesker. I will aim to explain the rather abstruse formal definition of this multiplication, and its relation to the ridiculously simple informal counterpart given by intersections of the objects B.

Series: Research Horizons Seminar

In this chalk plus slides talk, I will give a few examples from my own experience to illustrate how one can use stochastic differential equations in various applications, and its theoretical connection to diffusion theory and optimal transport theory. The presentation is designed for first or second year graduate students.

Series: Geometry Topology Seminar

Series: Geometry Topology Seminar

Monday, October 29, 2018 - 13:55 ,
Location: Skiles 005 ,
Prof. Tobin Issac ,
Georgia Tech, School of Computational Science and Engineering ,
Organizer: Sung Ha Kang

We are often forced to make important decisions with imperfect and incomplete data. In model-based inference, our efforts to extract useful information from data are aided by models of what occurs where we have no observations: examples range from climate prediction to patient-specific medicine. In many cases, these models can take the form of systems of PDEs with critical-yet-unknown parameter fields, such as initial conditions or material coefficients of heterogeneous media. A concrete example that I will present is to make predictions about the Antarctic ice sheet from satellite observations, when we model the ice sheet using a system of nonlinear Stokes equations with a Robin-type boundary condition, governed by a critical, spatially varying coefficient. This talk will present three aspects of the computational stack used to efficiently estimate statistics for this kind of inference problem. At the top is an posterior-distribution approximation for Bayesian inference, that combines Laplace's method with randomized calculations to compute an optimal low-rank representation. Below that, the performance of this approach to inference is highly dependent on the efficient and scalable solution of the underlying model equation, and its first- and second- adjoint equations. A high-level description of a problem (in this case, a nonlinear Stokes boundary value problem) may suggest an approach to designing an optimal solver, but this is just the jumping-off point: differences in geometry, boundary conditions, and otherconsiderations will significantly affect performance. I will discuss how the peculiarities of the ice sheet dynamics problem lead to the development of an anisotropic multigrid method (available as a plugin to the PETSc library for scientific computing) that improves on standard approaches.At the bottom, to increase the accuracy per degree of freedom of discretized PDEs, I develop adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) techniques for large-scale problems. I will present my algorithmic contributions to the p4est library for parallel AMR that enable it to scale to concurrencies of O(10^6), as well as recent work commoditizing AMR techniques in PETSc.

Friday, October 26, 2018 - 15:05 ,
Location: Skiles 156 ,
Jiaqi Yang ,
GT Math ,
Organizer: Jiaqi Yang

Friday, October 26, 2018 - 15:05 ,
Location: Skiles 156 ,
Jiaqi Yang ,
GT Math ,
Organizer: Jiaqi Yang

We show that, if the linearization of a map at a fixed point leaves invariant a spectral subspace, and some non-resonance conditions are satisfied. Then the map leaves invariant a smooth (as smooth as the map) manifold, which is unique among C^L invariant manifolds. Here, L only depends on the spectrum of the linearization. This is based on a work of Prof. Rafael de la Llave.

Series: Combinatorics Seminar

We discuss some recent developments on the critical behavior of percolation on finite random networks. In a seminal paper, Aldous (1997) identified the scaling limit for the component sizes in the critical window of phase transition for the Erdos-Renyi random graph (ERRG). Subsequently, there has been a surge in the literature, revealing several interesting scaling limits of these critical components, namely, the component size, diameter, or the component itself when viewed as a metric space. Fascinatingly, when the third moment of the asymptotic degree distribution is finite, many random graph models has been shown to exhibit a universality phenomenon in the sense that their scaling exponents and limit laws are the same as the ERRG. In contrast, when the asymptotic degree distribution is heavy-tailed (having an infinite third moment), the limit law turns out to be fundamentally different from the ERRG case and in particular, becomes sensitive to the precise asymptotics of the highest degree vertices. In this talk, we will focus on random graphs with a prescribed degree sequence. We start by discussing recent scaling limit results, and explore the universality classes that arise from heavy-tailed networks. Of particular interest is a new universality class that arises when the asymptotic degree distribution has an infinite second moment. Not only it gives rise to a completely new universality class, it also exhibits several surprising features that have never been observed in any other universality class so far. This is based on joint works with Shankar Bhamidi, Remco van der Hofstad, Johan van Leeuwaarden and Sanchayan Sen.