Fully Dynamic Low-Diameter Decomposition with Applications

ACO Student Seminar
Friday, March 16, 2018 - 13:05
1 hour (actually 50 minutes)
Skiles 005
CS, University of Vienna
A low-diameter decomposition (LDD) of an undirected graph G is a partitioning of G into components of bounded diameter, such that only a small fraction of original edges are between the components. This decomposition has played instrumental role in the design of low-stretch spanning tree, spanners, distributed algorithms etc. A natural question is whether such a decomposition can be efficiently maintained/updated as G undergoes insertions/deletions of edges. We make the first step towards answering this question by designing a fully-dynamic graph algorithm that maintains an LDD in sub-linear update time.  It is known that any undirected graph G admits a spanning tree T with nearly logarithmic average stretch, which can be computed in nearly linear-time. This tree decomposition underlies many recent progress in static algorithms for combinatorial and scientific flows. Using our dynamic LDD algorithm, we present the first non-trivial algorithm that dynamically maintains a low-stretch spanning tree in \tilde{O}(t^2) amortized update time, while achieving (t + \sqrt{n^{1+o(1)}/t}) stretch, for every 1 \leq t \leq n.  Joint work with Sebastian Krinninger.