Wednesday, January 14, 2015 - 2:00pm
1 hour (actually 50 minutes)
University of Mississippi at Oxford
We are going to discuss a generalization of the classical relation between Jacobi matrices and orthogonal polynomials to the case of difference operators on lattices. More precisely, the difference operators in question reflect the interaction of nearest neighbors on the lattice Z^2. It should be stressed that the generalization is not obvious and straightforward since, unlike the classical case of Jacobi matrices, it is not clear whether the eigenvalue problem for a difference equation on Z^2 has a solution and, especially, whether the entries of an eigenvector can be chosen to be polynomials in the spectral variable. In order to overcome the above-mentioned problem, we construct difference operators on Z^2 using multiple orthogonal polynomials. In our case, it turns out that the existence of a polynomial solution to the eigenvalue problem can be guaranteed if the coefficients of the difference operators satisfy a certain discrete zero curvature condition. In turn, this means that there is a discrete integrable system behind the scene and the discrete integrable system can be thought of as a generalization of what is known as the discrete time Toda equation, which appeared for the first time as the Frobenius identity for the elements of the Pade table.