Limit results for distributed estimation of invariant subspaces in multiple networks inference and PCA

Stochastics Seminar
Thursday, September 28, 2023 - 3:30pm for 1 hour (actually 50 minutes)
Skiles 006
Minh Tang – NC State
Cheng Mao

We study the problem of estimating the left and right singular subspaces for a collection of heterogeneous random graphs with a shared common structure. We analyze an algorithm that first estimates the orthogonal projection matrices corresponding to these subspaces for each individual graph, then computes the average of the projection matrices, and finally finds the matrices whose columns are the eigenvectors corresponding to the d largest eigenvalues of the sample averages. We show that the algorithm yields an estimate of the left and right singular vectors whose row-wise fluctuations are normally distributed around the rows of the true singular vectors. We then consider a two-sample hypothesis test for the null hypothesis that two graphs have the same edge probabilities matrices against the alternative hypothesis that their edge probabilities matrices are different. Using the limiting distributions for the singular subspaces, we present a test statistic whose limiting distribution converges to a central chi-square (resp. non-central chi-square) under the null (resp. alternative) hypothesis. Finally, we adapt the theoretical analysis for multiple networks to the setting of distributed PCA; in particular, we derive normal approximations for the rows of the estimated eigenvectors using distributed PCA when the data exhibit a spiked covariance matrix structure.