- Math Physics Seminar
- Friday, December 6, 2019 - 16:00 for 1 hour (actually 50 minutes)
- Skiles 005
- Michael Sigal – University of Toronto – email@example.com
We show that the dynamics of nonlinear dynamical systems with many degrees of freedom (possibly infinitely many) can be similar to that of ordered system in a surprising fashion. To this aim, in the literature one typically uses techniques from perturbation theory, such as KAM theorem or Nekhoroshev theorem. Unfortunately they are known to be ill-suited for obtaining results in the case of many degrees of freedom. We present here a probabilistic approach, in which we focus on some observables of physical interest (obtained by averaging on the probability distribution on initial data) and for several models we get results of stability on long times similar to Nekhoroshev estimates. We present the example of a nonlinear chain of particles with alternating masses, an hyper-simplified model of diatomic solid. In this case, which is similar to the celebrated Fermi-Pasta-Ulam model and is widely studied in the literature, we show the progress with respect to previous results, and in particular how the present approach permits to obtain theorems valid in the thermodynamic limit, as this is of great relevance for physical implications.
We establish an upper bound on the spectral gap for compact quantum graphs which depends only on the diameter and total number of vertices. This bound is asymptotically sharp for pumpkin chains with number of edges tending to infinity. This is a joint work with D. Borthwick and L. Corsi.
I will consider the isotropic XY chain with a transverse magnetic field acting on a single site, and analyze the long time behaviour of the time-dependent state of the system when a periodic perturbation drives the impurity. I will show that, under some conditions, the state approaches a periodic orbit synchronized with the forcing. Moreover I will provide the explicit rate of convergence to the asymptotics. This is a joint work with G. Genovese.
I will talk about a conjecture that in Gibbs states of one-dimensional spin chains with short-ranged gapped Hamiltonians the quantum conditional mutual information (QCMI) between the parts of the chain decays exponentially with the length of separation between said parts. The smallness of QCMI enables efficient representation of these states as tensor networks, which allows their efficient construction and fast computation of global quantities, such as entropy. I will present the known partial results on the way of proving of the conjecture and discuss the probable approaches to the proof and the obstacles that are encountered.
Please Note: Unusual time.
Mercury is entrapped in a 3:2 resonance: it rotates on its axis three times for every two revolutions it makes around the Sun. It is generally accepted that this is due to the large value of Mercury's eccentricity. However, the mathematical model commonly used to study the problem -- sometimes called the spin-orbit model -- proved not to be entirely convincing, because of the expression used for the tidal torque. Only recently, a different model for the tidal torque has been proposed, with the advantage of both being more realistic and providing a higher probability of capture into the 3:2 resonance with respect to the previous models. On the other hand, a drawback of the model is that the function describing the tidal torque is not smooth and appears as a superposition of peaks, so that both analytical and numerical computations turn out to be rather delicate. We shall present numerical and analytical results about the nature of the librations of Mercury's spin in the 3:2 resonance, as predicted by the realistic model. In particular we shall provide evidence that the librations are quasi-periodic in time, so that the very concept of resonance should be revisited. The analytical results are mainly based on perturbation theory and leave several open problems, that we shall discuss.
Please Note: Unusual time.
In standard (mathematical) billiards a point particle moves uniformly in a billiard table with elastic reflections off the boundary. We show that in transition from mathematical billiards to physical billiards, where a finite size hard sphere moves in the same billiard table, virtually anything may happen. Namely a non-chaotic billiard may become chaotic and vice versa. Moreover, both these transitions may occur softly, i.e. for any (arbitrarily small) positive value of the radius of a physical particle, as well as by a ”hard” transition when radius of the physical particle must exceed some critical strictly positive value. Such transitions may change a phase portrait of a mathematical billiard locally as well as completely (globally). These results are somewhat unexpected because for all standard examples of billiards their dynamics remains absolutely the same after transition from a point particle to a finite size (”physical”) particle. Moreover we show that a character of dynamics may change several times when the size of the particle is increasing. This approach already demonstrated a sensational result that quantum system could be more chaotic than its classical counterpart.