A classical particle moving in an inverse square central force, like a planet in the gravitational field of the Sun, moves in orbits that do not precess. This lack of precession, special to the inverse square force, indicates the presence of extra conserved quantities beyond the obvious ones. Thanks to Noether's theorem, these indicate the presence of extra symmetries. It turns out that not only rotations in 3 dimensions, but also in 4 dimensions, act as symmetries of this system. These extra symmetries are also present in the quantum version of the problem, where they explain some surprising features of the hydrogen atom. The quest to fully understand these symmetries leads to some fascinating mathematical adventures.
The Remez inequality for polynomials quantifies the way the maximum of a polynomial over an interval is controlled by its maximum over a subset of positive measure. The coefficient in the inequality depends on the degree of the polynomial; the result also holds in higher dimensions. We give a version of the Remez inequality for solutions of second order linear elliptic PDEs and their gradients. In this context, the degree of a polynomial is replaced by the Almgren frequency of a solution. We discuss other results on quantitative unique continuation for solutions of elliptic PDEs and their gradients and give some applications for the estimates of eigenfunctions for the Laplace-Beltrami operator. The talk is based on a joint work with A. Logunov.
Interpolative decomposition is a simple and yet powerful tool for approximating low-rank matrices. After discussing the theory and algorithms, I will present a few new applications of interpolative decomposition in numerical partial differential equations, quantum chemistry, and machine learning.
please note special time!
Condition number of “full” and sparse random matrices. Consider a system of linear equations Ax = b where the right hand side is known only approximately. In the process of solving this system, the error in vector b gets magnified by the condition number of the matrix A. A conjecture of von Neumann that with high probability, the condition number of an n × n random matrix with independent entries is O(n) has been proven several years ago. We will discuss this result as well as the possibility of its extension to sparse matrices.
Random matrices in combinatorics. A perfect matching in a graph with an even number of vertices is a pairing of vertices connected by edges of the graph. Evaluating or even estimating the number of perfect matchings in a given graph deterministically may be computationally expensive. We will discuss an application of the random matrix theory to estimating the number of perfect matchings in a de- terministic graph.
Random matrices and traffic jams. Adding another highway to an existing highway system may lead to worse traffic jams. This phenomenon known as Braess’ paradox is still lacking a rigorous mathematical explanation. It was recently explained for a toy model, and the explanation is based on the properties of the eigenvectors of random matrices.
designing efficient algorithms for network science. However, their
real-world application has been hampered by the challenges of unrealistic
structural assumptions, hidden costs in big-O notation, and
non-constructive proofs. In this talk, I will survey recent results which
address many of these concerns through an algorithmic pipeline for
structurally sparse networks, highlighting the crucial role of certain
graph colorings, along with several open problems. For example, we give
empirical and model-based evidence that real-world networks exhibit a form
of structural sparsity known as "bounded expansion,'' and discuss
properties of several low-treedepth colorings used in efficient algorithms
for this class.
Based on joint works with E. Demaine, J. Kun, M. O'Brien, M. Pilipczuk, F.
Reidl, P. Rossmanith, F. Sanchez Villaamil, and S. Sikdar.
together to obtain a rational function through a procedure known as
mating the polynomials. In this talk, we will begin by trying to
understand the "shape" of complex polynomials in general. We will then
discuss the mating of two quadratic polynomials: we explore examples
where the mating does exist, and examples where it does not. There will
be lots of movies and exploration in this talk.