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Series: CDSNS Colloquium

(Please note the unusual day)

New and proposed missions for approaching moons, and particularly icy moons, increasingly require the design of trajectories within challenging multi-body environments that stress or exceed the capabilities of the two-body design methodologies typically used over the last several decades. These current methods encounter difficulties because they often require appreciable user interaction, result in trajectories that require significant amounts of propellant, or miss potential mission-enabling options. The use of dynamical systems methods applied to three-body and multi-body models provides a pathway to obtain a fuller theoretical understanding of the problem that can then result in significant improvements to trajectory design in each of these areas. The search for approach trajectories within highly nonlinear, chaotic regimes where multi-body effects dominate becomes increasingly complex, especially when landing, orbiting, or flyby scenarios must be considered in the analysis. In the case of icy moons, approach trajectories must also be tied into the broader tour which includes flybys of other moons. The tour endgame typically includes the last several flybys, or resonances, before the final approach to the moon, and these resonances further constrain the type of approach that may be used.

In this seminar, new methods for approaching moons by traversing the chaotic regions near the Lagrange point gateways will be discussed for several examples. The emphasis will be on landing trajectories approaching Europa including a global analysis of trajectories approaching any point on the surface and analyses for specific landing scenarios across a range of different energies. The constraints on the approach from the tour within the context of the endgame strategy will be given for a variety of different moons and scenarios. Specific approaches using quasiperiodic or Lissajous orbits will be shown, and general landing and orbit insertion trajectories will be placed into context relative to the invariant manifolds of unstable periodic and quasiperiodic orbits. These methods will be discussed and applied for the specific example of the Europa Lander mission concept. The Europa Lander mission concept is particularly challenging in that it requires the redesign of the approach scenario after the spacecraft has launched to accommodate landing at a wide range of potential locations on the surface. The final location would be selected based on reconnaissance from the Europa Clipper data once Europa Lander is in route. Taken as a whole, these methods will provide avenues to find both fundamentally new approach pathways and reduce cost to enable new missions.

Series: Other Talks

Multidimensional data is ubiquitous in the application, e.g., images and videos. I will introduce some of my previous and current works related to this topic.

1) Lattice metric space and its applications. Lattice and superlattice patterns are found in material sciences, nonlinear optics and sampling designs. We propose a lattice metric space based on modular group theory and

metric geometry, which provides a visually consistent measure of dissimilarity among lattice patterns. We apply this framework to superlattice separation and grain defect detection.

2) We briefly introduce two current projects. First, we propose new algorithms for automatic PDE modeling, which drastically improves the efficiency and the robustness against additive noise. Second, we introduce a new model for surface reconstruction from point cloud data (PCD) and provide an ADMM type fast algorithm.

Series: PDE Seminar

In this talk we study master equations arising from mean field game

problems, under the crucial monotonicity conditions.

Classical solutions of such equations require very strong technical

conditions. Moreover, unlike the master equations arising from mean

field control problems, the mean field game master equations are

non-local and even classical solutions typically do not satisfy the

comparison principle, so the standard viscosity solution approach seems

infeasible. We shall propose a notion of weak solution for such

equations and establish its wellposedness. Our approach relies on a new

smooth mollifier for functions of measures, which unfortunately does not

keep the monotonicity property, and the stability result of master

equations. The talk is based on a joint work with Jianfeng Zhang.

Series: Dissertation Defense

An electron interacting with the vibrational modes of a polar crystal is called a polaron. Polarons are the simplest Quantum Field Theory models, yet their most basic features such as the effective mass, ground-state energy and wave function cannot be evaluated explicitly. And while several successful theories have been proposed over the years to approximate the energy and effective mass of various polarons, they are built entirely on unjustified, even questionable, Ansätze for the wave function.

In this talk I shall provide the first explicit description of the ground-state wave function of a polaron in an asymptotic regime: For the Fröhlich polaron localized in a Coulomb potential and exposed to a homogeneous magnetic field of strength $B$ it will be shown that the ground-state electron density in the direction of the magnetic field converges pointwise and in a weak sense as $B\rightarrow\infty$ to the square of a hyperbolic secant function--a sharp contrast to the Gaussian wave functions suggested in the physics literature.

Series: Dissertation Defense

In independent bond percolation with parameter p, if one removes the vertices of the infinite cluster (and incident edges), for which values of p does the remaining graph contain an infinite cluster? Grimmett-Holroyd-Kozma used the triangle condition to show that for d > 18, the set of such p contains values strictly larger than the percolation threshold pc. With the work of Fitzner-van der Hofstad, this has been reduced to d > 10. We reprove this result by showing that for d > 10 and some p>pc, there are infinite paths consisting of "shielded"' vertices --- vertices all whose adjacent edges are closed --- which must be in the complement of the infinite cluster. Using numerical values of pc, this bound can be reduced to d > 7. Our methods are elementary and do not require the triangle condition.

Invasion percolation is a stochastic growth model that follows a greedy algorithm. After assigning i.i.d. uniform random variables (weights) to all edges of d-dimensional space, the growth starts at the origin. At each step, we adjoin to the current cluster the edge of minimal weight from its boundary. In '85, Chayes-Chayes-Newman studied the "acceptance profile"' of the invasion: for a given p in [0,1], it is the ratio of the expected number of invaded edges until time n with weight in [p,p+dp] to the expected number of observed edges (those in the cluster or its boundary) with weight in the same interval. They showed that in all dimensions, the acceptance profile an(p) converges to one for p<pc and to zero for p>pc. In this paper, we consider an(p) at the critical point p=pc in two dimensions and show that it is bounded away from zero and one as n goes to infinity.

Series: Dissertation Defense

For a first order (deterministic) mean-field game with non-local running and initial couplings, a classical solution is constructed for the associated, so-called master equation, a partial differential equation in infinite-dimensional space with a non-local term, assuming the time horizon is sufficiently small and the coefficients are smooth enough, without convexity conditions on the Hamiltonian.